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Etymology

The Romans named the planet after Jupiter (also called Jove), the principal god of Roman mythology.

An older form of the deity's name in Rome was the Proto-Indo-European vocative Djeus-pater. Dyēus-patēr is the name of the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky and related to the Vedic Dyaus Pita

Djeus is the etymological equivalent of Greec Zeus (Diós) and related to Nordic Ziu, Tyr or *Tīwaz. *dyeu- "to shine" derived from the noun *deiwos "sky, heaven, god". To the Greeks and Romans, the god of the sky was also the supreme god, whereas this function was filled out by Odin among the Germanic tribes. The Romans did not identify Zeus/Jupiter with either Tyr, Wodan or Odin, but with Thor (Þórr) for the simple but wrong reason that Thor (Donar) was the God of thunder and lightning. Thor's role of God of Thunder is derived from his war hammer Mjolnir (with boomerang properties), the strike of which caused thunderclaps as he used it to kill giants.

symbol of JupiterThe astronomical symbol for the planet is supposed to be a stylized representation of the god's lightning bolt.  

Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. The older adjectival form jovial, employed by astrologers in the Middle Ages, has come to mean "happy" or "merry," moods ascribed to Jupiter's astrological influence.

The Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese referred to the planet as the wood star, 木星, based on the Chinese Five Elements. In Vedic Astrology, Hindu astrologers named the planet after Brihaspati, the religious teacher of the gods, and often called it "Guru," which literally means the "Heavy One."

Jupiter's epithets are sacred and many: "Lord of sacred speech", "Lord of power", "Guru of the Gods", "reader of minds" and "beloved by the Gods". 

BRIHASPATI - THE JUPITER

Jupiter is a karaka or indicator of fortune, wealth, fame, luck, devotion and faith, spirituality, charity, morality, meditation, mantra, children, magistrates, ministers, lawyers and leaders in government and religion. Jupiter represents sacred scripture, wisdom, benevolence and philosophy. Jupiter's most favored position is in the first. He does well both in the Kendra's and Angles, and the auspicious Trikonal Houses. His nature is KAPHA, or watery. His gemstone is Yellow Sapphire or Yellow Topaz and his metal is Gold. Jupiter's direction is Northeast and his day is Thursday. As a benefice planet he reaches full maturity the earliest of the 9 grahas at age 16.

Ammon was an ancient Egyptian god. He was depicted as a human with a ram's head. He was one of the chief gods, and was adopted by the Greeks as Zeus and the Roman's as Jupiter. The Egyptians acknowledged as the highest deity Amun, afterwards called Zeus, or Jupiter Ammon.

Mythology JUPITER

Jupiter was one of the most important of the Roman gods, continuously evolving with Roman needs. In the early Republican era, when Rome was an agricultural city, he first appeared as an agricultural god in charge of sun and moonlight (Jupiter Lucetius), wind, rain, storms, thunder and lightning (Jupiter Elicius), sowing (Jupiter Dapalis), creative forces (Jupiter Liber) and the boundary stones of fields (Jupiter Terminus).

As Rome developed into a city of commerce and military force, Jupiter evolved into a protector of the city and state of Rome. As with his earlier agricultural form, he could be invoked through a variety of titles, each dependent on the responsibilities being requested of him :

As a warrior god - JUPITER STATOR, FERETRIUS and VICTOR.

As great god of the Empire - JUPITER OPTIMUS MAXIMUS.

As protector of the Empire - JUPITER CONSERVATOR ORBIS

As protector of the Emperor - JUPITER CONSERVATOR AUGUSTORUM

On coins, Jupiter is traditionally shown as a bearded, older man, often naked and holding or throwing a thunderbolt. He can be either standing or seated. His sacred animal was the eagle, which he usually holds in an outstretched hand, or has standing at his feet. Most Roman images of Jupiter are styled after Greek images of Zeus, but in spite of many similarities, he is not simply a Roman version of Zeus.

Jupiter was the rain god and lord of the sky, making his name an appropriate one for the king of the planets. His weapon is a thunderbolt which he hurls at those who displease him. He is married to Hera but, is famous for his many affairs. He is also known to punish those that lie or break oaths.

Jupiter's wife was Juno, who was very jealous of the attention that he paid to other goddesses and women. Jupiter would often disguise himself as a bird or animal in order to sleep with other women. Usually, when Juno found out about the affair, she would severely punish the woman. Although not often written about, Juno possessed great power. Those that made her angry paid the price.

The Capitoline Triad

The Capitoline Triad was a group of three supreme deities in Roman religion who were worshipped in an elaborate temple on Rome's Capitoline Hill, the Capitolium. Two distinct Capitoline Triads were worshipped at various times in Rome's history, both originating in ancient traditions predating the Roman Republic, but the more recent, consisting of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva and drawing heavily from Etruscan mythology, is the one most commonly referred to as the "Capitoline Triad". The earlier, more traditional Indo-European-derived triad, now known as the Archaic Triad, consisted of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. Both groups of deities were central to Roman worship during their respective apices of popularity.

Archaic Triad

The original three deities thus worshipped, now more commonly referred to as the Archaic Triad, were Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. Jupiter was the supreme ruler of the heavens and god of thunder, Mars the god of agriculture and guardian of crops, and later a war deity, and Quirinus the enigmatic god of the Roman populus ("people").

This grouping has been interpreted as a symbolic representation of early Roman society, wherein Jupiter, standing in for the ritual and augural authority of the Flamen Dialis (high priest of Jupiter) and the chief priestly colleges, represents the priestly class, Mars, with his warrior and agricultural functions, represents the power of the king and young nobles to bring prosperity and victory through sympathetic magic with rituals like the October Horse and the Lupercalia, and Quirinus, with his source as the deified form of Rome's founder Romulus and his derivation from co-viri ("men together") representing the combined military and economic strength of the Roman people

 

Capitoline Triad

The three deities who are most commonly referred to as the Capitoline Triad are a group that supplanted the original Archaic Triad. This group, mirroring the Etruscan divine triad, consisted of Jupiter, the king of the gods; Juno (in her aspect as Iuno Regina, "Queen Juno"), his wife and sister; and Jupiter's daughter Minerva, the goddess of wisdom.

Unlike the earlier Archaic Triad, which was fairly typical of a trio of supreme divine beings, this grouping of a male god and two goddesses was highly unusual in ancient Indo-European religions. It is almost certainly derived from the Etruscan trio of Tinia, the supreme deity, Uni, his wife, and Menrva, their daughter and the goddess of wisdom.

Quirinus was originally most likely a Sabine god of war. The Sabines had a settlement near the eventual site of Rome, and erected an altar to Quirinus on the Collis Quirinalis, the Quirinal Hill, one of the Seven Hills of Rome. When the Romans settled there, they absorbed the cult of Quirinus into their early belief system — previous to direct Greek influence — and by the end of the first century BC Quirinus was considered to be the deified Romulus. He soon became an important god of the Roman state, being included in the earliest precursor of the Capitoline Triad, along with Mars (then an agriculture god) and Jupiter.

 

Minerva was the Roman goddess whom Hellenizing Romans from the second century BC onwards equated with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of warriors, poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, and the inventor of music. She is often depicted with an owl, her sacred creature and, through this connection, a symbol of wisdom.

Etruscan Menrva
The name "Minerva" is imported from the Etruscans who called her Menrva. Extrapolating from her Roman nature, it is assumed that in Etruscan mythology, Menrva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools and commerce. She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena. Like Athena, Menrva was born from the head of her father, Tinia (Roman Jupiter).

Her name has the Proto-Indo-European mn- stem, linked with memory as in Greek Mnemosyne (μνημοσύνη) and mnestis ( memory, remembrance, recollection). The Romans could have confused her foreign name with their word from the same stem. mens meaning "mind", since one of her aspects as goddess pertained also to the intellectual.

In Fasti III, Ovid called her the "goddess of a thousand works." Minerva was worshipped throughout Italy, though only in Rome did she take on the warlike character shared by Athena.

Juno

Juno was an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. She is a daughter of Saturn and sister (but also the wife) of the chief god Jupiter and the mother of Juventas, Mars, and Vulcan. Her Greek equivalent is Hera. As the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman empire she was called Regina ("queen") and, together with Jupiter and Minerva, was worshipped as a triad on the Capitol (Juno Capitolina) in Rome. As the Juno moneta (which either means "the one who warns" or "the one unique" or "union unique") she guarded over the finances of the empire and had a temple on the Arx (one of two Capitoline hills), close to the Royal Mint. She was also worshipped in many other cities, where temples were built in her honor. Lucina was an epithet for Juno as "she who brings children into light."

Juno's own warlike aspect among the Romans is apparent in her attire. She often appeared armed and wearing a goatskin cloak, which was the garment favoured by Roman soldiers on campaign. This warlike aspect was assimilated from the Greek goddess Athena, whose goatskin was called the 'aegis'.

There is a possible etymology for Juno in the Proto-Indo-European root *yeu-, "vital force", which has such derivatives as the English youth. Although such a derivation could possibly be consistent with an origin as a mother goddess, it is more likely that the root *yeu- is used in the same sense as other Latin words derived from it, such as iuvenis ("young man", with derivatives such as juvenile and rejuvenate), which would imply that Juno's nature prior to the syncretism of Greek and Roman mythology was more akin to Diana's, as a maiden goddess of birth or midwifery. However, the Roman absorption of Greek myth replaced earlier characteristics of Juno with those of Hera, extending her domain from birth to marriage and promoting her to the role of Jupiter's wife and the queen of the gods. She could also throw lightning bolts like Jupiter.

More immediately, Juno's Etruscan equivalent was Uni. There is currently more support for the theory that Juno is derived from Uni, and thus cannot have an Indo-European link to *yeu-. It is likely that one of these goddesses inspired the other, but whether Juno comes from Uni, or vice versa, remains disputed. "Uni" possibly meant "alone, unique, unit, union", but more examples of the Etruscan language proper will need to be found to see what Etruscans meant by uni.

The theory that Juno is derived from Uni is also supported by an ancient writer, Livy who states that Juno was an Etruscan goddess from Veii, who was ceremonially adopted into the Roman pantheon when Veii was sacked in 396BC.

Juno protected the finances of the Roman Empire as Juno Moneta ("Juno who Warns" or "Juno the alone").

 

Etruscan Mythology
The Etruscans were a diachronically continuous population speaking a distinct language and practicing a distinctive culture that ranged over the Po Valley and some of its alpine slopes, southward along the west coast of Italy, most intensely in Etruria, with enclaves as far south as Campania, and inland into the Appennine mountains, during the period of earliest European writing in the Mediterranean Iron Age, in the second two quarters of the first millennium BC. Their prehistory can be traced with certainty to about 1000 BC. During their floruit of about 500 BC they were a significant maritime power with a presence in Sardinia and the Aegean Sea. At first influential in the formation and conduct of the Roman monarchy they came to oppose the Romans during the Roman Republic, entered into military conflict with it, were defeated, politically became part of the republic and integrated into Roman culture. The Etruscans had both a religion and a supporting mythology. Many Etruscan beliefs, customs and divinities became part of Roman culture, including the Roman pantheon.
The Etruscans believed that their religion had been revealed to them in early days by seers, the two main ones being Tages and Vegoia. A number of canonical works on their teaching were written in Etruscan and survived until the middle centuries of the 1st millennium AD, when they were destroyed by the ravages of time and by Christian elements in Roman society. After defeating the Etruscans the Romans, whose original population had included significant Etruscan elements, did not harbor ill-will against them but the Senate voted to adopt the key elements of their revealed religion. It was in practice long after the general Etruscan population had forgotten the language and was perpetuated by haruspices and members of the noble families at Rome who knew Etruscan and claimed an Etruscan descent. In the last years of the Roman Republic the religion began to fall out of favor and was satirized by such notable public figures as Marcus Tullius Cicero. The Julio-Claudians, especially Claudius, who claimed a remote Etruscan descent, perpetuated an obscure knowledge of the language and religion for a short time longer, and then it was lost.

The Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism; that is, all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power and that power was subsided into deities that acted continually on the world of man and could be dissuaded or persuaded in favour of human affairs. Seneca the Younger said (long after the assimilation of the Etruscans) that the difference between "us" (the population of the Roman Empire) and the Etruscans was that
Whereas we believe lightening to be released as a result of the collision of clouds, they believe that the clouds collide so as to release lightening: for as they attribute all to deity, they are led to believe not that things have a meaning in so far as they occur, but rather that they occur because they must have a meaning.
Three layers are evident in the extensive Etruscan art motifs concerning religion. One appears to be divinities of an indigenous nature: Catha and Usil, the sun, Tivr, the moon, Selvans, a civil god, Turan, the goddess of love, Laran, the god of war, Leinth, the goddess of death, Maris, Thalna, Turms and the god Fufluns, whose name is related in some unknown way to the city of Populonia and the populus Romanus.
Ruling over this pantheon of lesser deities were higher ones that seem to reflect the Indo-European system: Tin or Tinia, the sky, Uni his wife (Juno), and Cel, the earth goddess. As a third layer the Greek gods were taken into the Etruscan system: Aritimi (Artemis), Menrva (Minerva; Latin equivalent of Athena), and Pacha (Bacchus; Latin equivalent of Dionysus) during the Etruscan Orientalizing Period of 750/700-600 BCE.

The Etruscan religion was a revealed one. Its scriptures were a corpus of Etruscan texts termed the Etrusca Disciplina. This name appears fully in Valerius Maximus but Marcus Tullius Cicero in the later Roman Republic refers to a disciplina in his writings on the subject. Massimo Pallottino summarizes the known (but non-extant) scriptures as the Libri Haruspicini, stating the theory and rules of divination from animal entrails, the Libri Fulgurales, of which the topic was divination from lightening strikes and the Libri Rituales. The latter were composed of the Libri Fatales, expressing the religiously correct methods of founding cities and shrines, draining fields, formulating laws and ordinances, measuring space and dividing time; the Libri Acherontici, dealing with the hereafter and the Libri Ostentaria, rules for interpreting prodigies. The revelations of the prophet Tages were given in the Libri Tagetici, which included the Libri Haruspicini and the Acherontici, and those of the prophetess Vegoia in the Libri Vegoici, which included the Libri Fulgurales and part of the Libri Rituales.
These works did not present prophecies or scriptures in the ordinary sense; they were not like the Sermon on the Mount or the Iliad, which detail ethical principles or polytheistic systems, or like the prophetic books of the Old Testament, which foretell things to come in figurative language. The Etrusca Disciplina foretold nothing itself. The Etruscans appear to have had no systematic ethics or religion and no great visions. Instead they concentrated on the problem of God's will: if God created the universe and man and has a will and a plan for everyone and everything in it, why did he not devise a system for communicating that will in a clear manner?
The Etruscans totally accepted the inscrutability of God's will. They did not attempt to rationalize or explain why he does anything or put any doctrines in his intent. As answer to the problem of ascertaining his will they developed an elaborate system of divination; that is, God offers a perpetual stream of signs in the events and phenomena of daily life, and if only read rightly they can direct man's affairs at any level of detail, private or public. The will revealed in this manner may not be otherwise understandable and may not be pleasant or easy but can only be doubted at the peril of the questioner. The Etrusca Disciplina therefore was mainly a set of rules for the conduct of divination of all sorts; Pallottino calls it a religious and political "constitution." It does not dictate what laws shall be made or how men are to behave, but rather elaborates rules for asking God these questions more directly and receiving answers no matter how incredible. Cicero said:
For a hasty acceptance of an erroneous opinion is discreditable in any case, and especially so in an inquiry as to how much weight should be given to auspices, to sacred rites, and to religious observances; for we run the risk of committing a crime against the gods if we disregard them, or of becoming involved in old women's superstition if we approve them.
He then quipped, regarding divination from the singing of frogs:
Who could suppose that frogs had this foresight? And yet they do have by nature some faculty of premonition, clear enough of itself, but too dark for human comprehension.

The Etruscans believed in intimate contact with divinity. They did nothing without proper consultation with the gods and signs from them. These practices were taken over in total by the Romans. A god was called an ais (later eis) which in the plural is aisar. Where they were was a fanu or luth, a sacred place, such as a favi, a grave or temple. There one would need to make a fler (plural flerchva) "offering".
Around the mun or muni, the tombs, were the man or mani (Latin Manes), the souls of the ancestors. In iconography after the 5th century BC, the deceased are shown traveling to the underworld. In several instances of Etruscan art, such as in the Francois Tomb, a spirit of the dead is identified by the term hinthial (literally "(one who is) underneath"). A special magistrate, the cechase, looked after the cecha, or rath, sacred things. Every man, however, had his religious responsibilities, which were expressed in an alumnathe or slecaches, a sacred society. No public event was conducted without the netsvis, the haruspex, or his female equivalent, the nethsra. They read the bumps on the liver of a properly sacrificed sheep. We have a model of a liver made of bronze, whose religious significance is still a matter of heated debate, marked into sections which perhaps are meant to explain what the bump in that region should mean. Divination through haruspicy is a tradition originating from the Fertile Crescent.
Etruscan beliefs concerning the hereafter appear to be a compound accumulation of beliefs from different historical influences. The Etruscans shared in the general early Mediterranean belief, such as the Egyptian, that survival in the hereafter and prosperity there depend on the treatment of the deceased's remains here. Etruscan tombs imitated domestic structures and were characterized by spacious chambers, wall paintings and grave furniture. In the tomb, especially on the sarcophagus, was a representation of the deceased in his or her prime, often with spouse. Not everyone had a sarcophagus; sometimes the deceased was laid out on a stone bench. As the Etruscans practiced mixed inhumation and cremation rites, the proportion depending on the period, a tomb might also contain urns holding the ashes and bones; in that case, the urn might be in the shape of a house or be shaped into a representation of the deceased.
In addition to the world still influenced by terrestrial affairs was a transmigrational world beyond the grave patterned after the Greek Hades. It was ruled by Vanth. The deceased was guided there by Charun, the equivalent of Death, who wielded a hammer and was blue. The Etruscan Hades was populated by Greek mythological figures and also a few native, such as Tuchulcha, of composite appearance.

Mythology ZEUSk.	Laurel-wreathed head of Zeus on a gold stater, Lampsacus, c 360-340 BC (Cabinet des Médailles)

Many Greek people recognized the 14 major gods and goddesses: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Ares, Dionysus, Hephaestus, Athena, Hermes, Demeter, Hestia, and Hades though philosophical religions such as Stoicism and forms of Platonism posited a transcendent single deity. Different cities worshipped different deities, sometimes with epithets that specified their local nature.

Ancient Greek theology revolved around polytheism; that is, that there were many gods and goddesses. There was a hierarchy of deities, with Zeus, the king of the gods, having a level of control over all the others. Each deity generally had dominion over a certain aspect of nature, for instance, Poseidon ruled over the sea and earthquakes, and Hyperion ruled over the sun. Other deities ruled over an abstract concept, for instance Eros controlled love. Whilst being immortal, the gods were not all powerful. They had to obey fate, which override all.

The gods acted like humans, and had human vices. They would interact with humans, sometimes even spawning children with them. At times certain gods would be opposed to another, and they would try to outdo each other. For instance, in the Trojan war, the god Poseidon supported Troy, but Zeus and Athena supported the Greeks.

Some gods were specifically associated with a certain city. For instance, Athena was associated with the city of Athens, Apollo with Delphi and Delos, Zeus with Olympia and Aphrodite with Corinth. Other deities were associated with nations outside of Greece, for instance, Poseidon was associated with Ethiopia and Troy, and Ares with Thrace.

Identity of names was not a guarantee of a similar cultus; the Greeks themselves were well aware that the Artemis worshipped at Sparta, the virgin huntress, was a very different deity from the Artemis who was a many-breasted fertility goddess at Ephesus. When literary works such as the Iliad related conflicts among the gods these conflicts were because their followers were at war on earth and were a celestial reflection of the earthly pattern of local deities.

Birth

Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own son as he had overthrown his own father— an oracle that Zeus was to hear and avert. But when Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed.

Infancy

Rhea hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. According to varying versions of the story:

He was then raised by Gaia. He is described as being "Earth-born" and was gestated buried beneath the ground; this is Gaia's domain, though she had no direct involvement in his birth or development. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes— soldiers, or smaller gods— danced, shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. Since Cronus ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible to his father. He was raised by a nymph named Cynosura. In gratitude, Zeus placed her among the stars. He was raised by Melissa, who nursed him with goat's-milk and honey. He was raised by a shepherd family under the promise that their sheep would be saved from wolves.

Zeus becomes king of the gods

After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone (which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, the Omphalos) then his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Gigantes, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe.

A chthonic female monster in Greek mythology, Kampê ("crooked") was set by Kronos to guard the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes in Tartarus after Kronos imprisoned them there; she was killed by Zeus when he rescued the Cyclopes for help in the battle with the Titans Campe was a she-dragon with a woman's head and torso and a scorpion-like tail. As a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Together, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, along with the Gigantes, Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy. The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans that fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky. Atlas, with his brother Menoetius, sided with the Titans in their war against the Olympians, the Titanomachy. His brothers Prometheus and Epimetheus weighed the odds and betrayed the other Titans by forming an alliance with the Olympians. When the Titans were defeated, many of them (including Menoetius) were confined to Tartarus, but Zeus condemned Atlas to stand at the western edge of Gaia, the Earth and hold up Ouranos, the Sky on his shoulders, to prevent the two from resuming their primordial embrace. Thus, he was Atlas Telamon, "enduring Atlas." A common misconception is that Atlas was forced to hold the Earth on his shoulders, but this is incorrect. Classical art shows Atlas holding a Celestial Sphere, not a Globe.

After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers, Poseidon and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, and Hades the world of the dead (the underworld). The ancient Earth, Gaia, could not be claimed; she was left to all three, each according to their capabilities, which explains why Poseidon was the "earth-shaker" (the god of earthquakes) and Hades claimed the humans that died. w. Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated the Titans, because they were her children. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon and Echidna. He vanquished Typhon and trapped him under a mountain, but left Echidna and her children alive. x. Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. By Hera, Zeus sired Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus, though some accounts say that Hera produced these offspring alone. Some also include Eileithyia and Eris as their daughters. The conquests of Zeus among nymphs and the mythic mortal progenitors of Hellenic dynasties are famous. Olympian mythography even credits him with unions with Leto, Demeter, Dione and Maia. Among mortals were Semele, Io, Europa and Leda. y. Many myths render Hera as jealous of his amorous conquests and a consistent enemy of Zeus' mistresses and their children by him. For a time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by incessantly talking: when Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others. z. aa. The birth and early life of Zeus, up to the period when, after a long and fierce war around Olympus, he defeated the Titans and established his right to reign in the place of his father Cronus, has already been related. That his own brothers, to whose assistance he had been greatly indebted during the war, might have a share in the management of the world, lots were cast; and to Poseidon (Neptune) fell the control of the sea and rivers, while Hades (Pluto) obtained the government of the world under the earth. Opposition, however, on the part of the kindred of Cronus had not yet ceased, and the new dynasty of gods had to encounter a fresh outbreak of war even more terrible than had been that of the Titans, the enemy being in this case the Giants, a race of beings sprung from the blood of Uranus. The Giants took up their position on the peninsula of Pallene, which is separated from Mount Olympus by a bay. Their king and leader was Porphyrion, their most powerful combatant Alcinous, against whom Zeus and Athene took up arms in vain. Their mother Earth had made the Giants proof against all the weapons of the gods — not, however, against the weapons of mortals; and, knowing this, Athene brought Heracles (Hercules) on the scene. Sun and moon ceased to shine at the command of Zeus, and the herb was cut down which had furnished the Giants with a charm against wounds. The huge Alcinous, who had hurled great rocks at the Olympians, fell by the arrows of Heracles; and Porphyrion, while in the act of seizing Hera, was overpowered.

To the popular mind this war with the Giants had a greater interest than that with the Titans. Ultimately the two were confounded.

This Statue of Zeus was created by the famous Greek sculptor Pheidius during the 5th century B.C. It was considered one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. The statue stood for over 800 years in the temple of Zeus at Olympia in Greece, until the Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaimed Christianity the state religion, and ordered all statues and likenesses of the pagan gods torn down.

The eagle soaring beyond vision seemed to benefit by its approach to Zeus, and came to be looked on as sacred to him. Similarly high mountain peaks derived a sanctity from their nearness to the region of light, and were everywhere in Greece associated with his worship, many of them furnishing titles by which he was locally known — as, for instance, a title derived from Mount Ætna in Sicily, or, from a mountain in Rhodes.

In contrast with this, and as testimony to the saying of Hesiod that Zeus Cronides lived not only in the pure air but also at the roots of the earth and in men, we find the low ground ofDodona in Epirus viewed with peculiar solemnity as a spot where direct communion was to be enjoyed with him. A wind was heard to rustle in the branches of a sacred oak when the god had any communication to make while the task of interpreting it devolved on a priesthood called Selli. A spring rose at the foot of the oak, and sacred pigeons rested among its leaves, the story being that they had first drawn attention to the oracular powers of the tree. It should here be noted that the real importance of this worship of Zeus at Dodona belonged to exceedingly early times, and that in the primitive religion of the Italian, German, and Celtic nations the oak was regarded with similar reverence.

As the highest god, and throughout Greece worshipped as such, he was styled “the father of gods and men,” the ruler and preserver of the world. He was believed to be possessed of every form of power, endued with wisdom, and in his dominion over the human race partial to justice, and with no limit to his goodness and love. Zeus orders the alternation of day and night, the seasons succeed at his command, the winds obey him; now he gathers, now scatters the clouds, and bids the gentle rain fall to fertilize the fields and meadows. He watches over the administration of law and justice in the state, lends majesty to kings, and protects them in the exercise of their sovereignty. He observes attentively the general intercourse and dealings of men — everywhere demanding and rewarding uprightness, truth, faithfulness, and kindness; everywhere punishing wrong, deceit, faithlessness, and cruelty. As the eternal father of men, he was believed to listen kindly to the call of the poorest and most forsaken. The homeless beggar looked to him as a merciful guardian who punished the heartless, and delighted to reward pity and sympathy.

Jupiter's 12-year orbital period corresponds to the dozen astrological signs of the zodiac, and may have been the historical origin of the signs. That is, each time Jupiter reaches opposition it has advanced eastward by about 30°, the width of a zodiac sign.

To the Babylonians, this object represented their god Marduk. They used the roughly 12-year orbit of this planet along the ecliptic to define the constellations of their zodiac.

Jupiter in Mythology

IO

Io was a river nymph whose beauty attracted Jupiter. He fell in love with her, and seduced her. Hoping to hide his affair from the eyes of his wife, Juno (Hera in Greek mythology), Jupiter covered the world with a thick blanket of clouds. The painting "Jupiter and Io" by the 16th century Italian Renaissance painter artist Correggio, shows Jupiter in the form of a cloud planting a kiss on the cheek of an ecstatic Io.
Juno wasn't that stupid. The cloudbank aroused her suspicions (Jupiter was known for having affairs, after all), so she came down to Earth from Mount Olympus and started dispersing the clouds.
When Jupiter realized that Juno was about to find him and Io, he quickly changed Io into a heifer. All that Juno found was Jupiter innocently standing next to a white cow, swearing that he had never seen the cow before, that it had suddenly appeared out of the Earth. Juno wasn't fooled. She admired the cow, and asked Jupiter if she could have it as a present. Jupiter had little choice but to agree. Juno now started on a campaign to permanently separate Jupiter and Io. First, she sent Io the cow away under a guard. Jupiter arranged for Io to be rescued and set free. Next, Juno set a gadfly to torment and sting Io, a terrible torture for a cow. Io tried desperately to escape the gadfly, and ended up wandering around the world. Her wanderings were commemorated in the names of many geographical features: the sea that Io the heifer swam across is named after her (the Ionian Sea), as is the Bosporus strait (which translates to "fording of the ox."). Io eventually found her way to Egypt, where, after Jupiter promised to no longer pursue her, Juno returned her to human form.

EUROPA.
Europa was a Phoenician princess. Her story begins with a dream. In Europa's dream, the continent Asia argued that since Europa had been born in Asia she belonged to Asia. The other continent, which had no name, said that where Europa was born was not important, and that Jupiter would give Europa to the nameless continent. In the morning, Europa went off with her companions--a group of young ladies--to gather flowers by the sea. Jupiter noticed the lovely group. He was especially taken by Europa, who was the prettiest of the maidens. Jupiter's ideas on how to court a young lady seem a trifle unusual--he approached the group disguised as a white bull. The bull was beautiful, gentle, smelled of flowers, and had a lovely musical moo. Of course, all the maidens rushed to stroke and pet it. The bull laid down in front of Europa. She slid on to its back, perhaps expecting a gentle ride. Instead, the bull charged off, plunged into the sea, and swam away from the shore. This scene is the subject of a painting by 16th century Italian renaissance painter Titian, "The Rape of Europa." They were soon joined by a procession of gods, making Europa realize that the white bull must also be a god. She pleaded with the bull for pity. Jupiter told Europa that he loved her, and that he was taking her to Crete. Upon arriving in Crete, Jupiter returned to his usual shape, throwing the bull's shape into the heavens where it became the constellation Taurus. Juno was distracted with other matters during this period, so she never punished Europa for having an affair with Jupiter. Jupiter promised Europa that she would bear him many famous sons. Europa bore Jupiter 3 sons, including Minos, legendary ancestor of the Minoan civilization, the first European civilization. Eventually, Charlemagne named the continent which he had conquered Europe--giving a name to that nameless continent.

GANYMEDE

According to the legend, Jupiter's attention was caught one day by the beautiful Trojan boy Ganymede, whom he saw playing on Mount Ida on the island of Crete. He snatched the boy up, and brought him back to Olympus to serve as the cupbearer of the gods, a position, incidentally, already held by his own daughter Hebe. The kidnapping is the subject of this 5th century B.C. terra cotta statue of Jupiter and Ganymede.

CALLISTO

The nymph Callisto was a favorite companion of the virgin goddess Diana. Callisto had vowed to remain chaste, and to follow in the ways of Diana. She accompanied Diana while hunting and was her constant companion. Jupiter caught a glimpse of the beautiful Callisto and, of course, fell in love with her. Knowing that Diana had warned Callisto of the deceitful ways of men and gods, Jupiter cleverly disguised himself as Diana. He then seduced Callisto, and Callisto conceived a child.
When Callisto's condition was revealed to Diana by jealous competitors for Diana's attentions, Callisto was forced out of the company of Diana. She bore a boy child named Arcas. When Jupiter's wife Juno saw this evidence of Jupiter's infidelity she became enraged, and changed Callisto into a bear. Callisto was ashamed and afraid, and fled into the woods, not to see her son for many years.
One day, when Callisto's son Arcas was a young man, he decided to go hunting, and went into the woods where his mother Callisto lived. Callisto saw her son, whom she had not seen for many years. She forgot she was a bear, and rushed forward to embrace her son. Arcas only saw a bear rushing down on him. He lifted his bow and shot an arrow at the beast. At the last moment Jupiter intervened and placed Callisto and her son in the heavens as the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, the big and little bears. Parts of these constellations are also known as the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper.

PHAETON

The Greeks son of the sun-god Helios, Phaeton (“blazing” "the shining one"), finally learned who his father was, he went east to meet him. He induced his father to allow him to drive the chariot of the sun across the heavens for one day.
In Greek mythology, Phaëtōn or Phaethōn was the son of Helios (Phoebus). Perhaps the most famous version of the myth is given us through Ovid in his Metamorphoses (Book II). Phaeton seeks assurance that his mother, Clymene, is telling the truth that his father is the sun god Helios. When Phaeton obtains his father's promise to drive the sun chariot as proof, he fails to control it and is killed to prevent further disaster. 1. Ovid. In the version of the myth told by Ovid in the Metamorphoses, Phaeton ascends into heaven, the home of his suspected father. His mother Clymene had boasted that his father was the sun-god Helios (or the god of sun, Apollo). Phaeton went to his father who swore by the river Styx to give Phaeton anything he should ask for in order to prove his divine paternity. Phaeton wanted to drive his chariot (the sun) for a day. Though Helios tried to talk him out of it by telling him that not even Zeus (the king of gods) would dare to drive it, the chariot was fiery hot and the horses breathed out flames. Phaeton was adamant. When the day came, Apollo anointed Phaeton's head with magic oil to keep the chariot from burning him. Phaeton was unable to control the fierce horses that drew the chariot as they sensed a weaker hand. First it veered too high, so that the earth grew chill. Then it dipped too close, and the vegetation dried and burned. He accidentally turned most of Africa into desert; burning the skin of the Ethiopians black. Rivers and lakes began to dry up, Poseidon rose out of the sea and waved his trident in anger at the sun, but soon the heat became even too great for him and he dove to the bottom of the sea. Eventually, Zeus was forced to intervene by striking the runaway chariot with a lightning bolt to stop it, and Phaëthon plunged into the river Eridanos. Helios, stricken with grief, refused to drive his chariot for days. Finally the gods persuaded him to not leave the world in darkness. Helios blamed Zeus for killing his son, but Zeus told him there was no other way.

This story has given rise to two latter-day meanings of "phaeton": one who drives a chariot or coach, (or BMW) especially at a reckless or dangerous speed, and one that would or may set the world on fire. The moral of the story is that the sun travels its proper course every day giving correct amounts of light and warmth to the world.

Philemon and Baucis

Philemon and Baucis, an aged couple of the poorer class, were living peacefully and full of piety towards the gods in their cottage in Phrygia, when Zeus, who, in disguise, often visited the earth to inquire into the behavior of men, paid a visit to these poor old people, and was received by them very kindly as a weary traveller, which he pretended to be. Bidding him welcome to the house, they set about preparing for their guest and his companion, Hermes (Mercury), as excellent a meal as they could afford, and for this purpose were about to kill the only goose they had left, when Zeus interfered; for he was touched by their kindliness and genuine piety, and all the more because he had observed among the other inhabitants of the district nothing but cruelty of disposition and a habit of reproaching and despising the gods. To punish this conduct he determined to visit the country with a destroying flood, but to save from it Philemon and Baucis, the good aged couple, and to reward them in a striking manner. To this end he revealed himself to them before opening the gates of the great flood, transformed their poor cottage on the hill into a splendid temple, installed the aged pair as his priest and priestess, and granted their prayer that they might both die together. When after many years death overtook them they were changed into two trees that grew side by side in the neighbourhood, an oak and a linden.

METIS

The first wife of Zeus was Metis, a daughter of the friendly Titan Oceanus. But as Fate, a dark and omniscient being, had predicted that Metis would bear Zeus a son who should surpass his father in power, Zeus followed in a manner the example of his father Cronus, by swallowing Metis before she was delivered of her child, and then from his own head gave birth to the goddess of wisdom, Pallas Athene (Minerva). Next he married, it is said, but only for a time, Themis, and became the father of Astrea and the Horea. His chief love was, however, always for Hera (Juno), with her many charms, who after withstanding his entreaties for a time, at length gave way, and the divine marriage took place amid great rejoicing, not on the part of the gods of heaven alone, for those other deities also, to whom the management of the world in various departments was delegated, were invited, and gladly attended the splendid ceremony.

These numerous love passages of Zeus (and other gods as well), related by ancient poets, appear to us, as it is known they appeared to the right-thinking men amongst the ancients themselves, unbecoming of the great ruler of the universe. The wonder is how such stories came into existence; unless indeed this be accepted as a satisfactory explanation of their origin, — that they are simply the different versions of one great myth of the marriage of Zeus, peculiar in early times to the different districts of Greece, each version representing him as having but one wife, and being constant to her. Her name and the stories connected with their married life would be more or less different in each case. In after time, when the various tribes of the Greeks became united into one people, and the various myths that had sprung up independently concerning Zeus came, through the influence of poets and by other means, to be known to the whole nation, we may imagine that the only way that presented itself of uniting them all into one consistent narrative was by degrading all the wives, except Hera, to the position of temporary acquaintances. It is, however, unfortunate that we cannot now trace every one of his acquaintances of this sort back to a primitive position of sufficiently great local importance. At the same time, enough is known to justify this principle of interpretation, not only with regard to the apparent improprieties in the conduct of Zeus, but also of the other deities wherever they occur. Properly Zeus could have but one wife, such being the limit of marriage among the Greeks.

Of all the children Zeus spawned, Heracles was often described as his favourite. Indeed, Heracles was often called by various gods and people as "the favourite son of Zeus", Zeus and Heracles were very close and in one story, where a tribe of earth-born Giants threatened Olympus and the Oracle at Delphi decreed that only the combined efforts of a lone god and mortal could stop the creature, Zeus chose Heracles to fight by his side. They proceeded to defeat the monsters.

In Neo-Platonism, Zeus' relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge or Divine Mind. Specifically within Plotinus' work the Enneads and the Platonic Theology of Proclus.

Understanding and comprehension

With so much material at hand it might not be so easy to comprehend the astrological meaning of Jupiter in a chart. The natural placement of Jupiter observed through the four-coloured lens of astrology reveals that this huge planet and mythological God of all Gods is ruling the sign Sagittarius and thus shoulders with the 4th Quarter, the Spirit. As our holistic evolution as a human being starts with our individual birth at the Ascendant and then develops anti-clock-wise through Soul and Mind towards the realisation of our unique existence, Jupiter's placement explains its astrological association with the aim to go beyond the realm of Mother earth, to move towards the spiritual side, which mirrors Sagittarian’s interest in philosophy and religion, as well as its urge to merge with or into something larger than life.

I like to make a distinction between understanding and comprehension... the Latin root of the word comprehension literally means to “completely catch hold of” something, or “completely seize” something, with the main reference to “completely”. Understanding on the other hand is something that actually hasn’t been completely comprehended or understood. All dictionaries are only guessing that “under-” is not meant to indicate “beneath” but “between, among”, in the sense of "stand among" or "stand in the midst of". It is also assumed that the Old English forstanden and the German verstehen compound the meaning to “stand before”, not “beneath” that means. The literal change from for- to under- happened during the Roman occupation. The Romans were not interested in having people in front of them but beneath them, and thus changed the connotation of comprehension from forstanden to understanding, which had then, as it still has in German now, the association of obedience, in the sense of “don’t you dare to disobey” –understood? What also has been overlooked is that the German prefix ver- as well as the Old English for- not only mean “in front” or “before” but also “to bring to”, which compounds to the literal meaning of “to bring to stand, to halt”, and is commonly illustrated through the act of grasping (Latin: capito). That kind of grasping (German: begreifen) is not meant to illustrate an act of taking; it rather illustrates the act of bringing something to a standstill. What? You may wonder. The mind. If a mind runs loose and does its thing: measuring, labelling, valuating, judging, and so on, then there is actually no space to comprehend what is going on, for then everything that is going on is perceived via the calculating mind. To really comprehend, the mind has to be still.

The often referred opposition of Jupiter in Sagittarius to Mercury in Gemini is commonly used to illustrate the difference between short-sightedness and far-sightedness. While Jupiter lives on the hilltop with a great overview Mercury is placed beneath the horizon in the narrowness of a valley where you have to watch your steps. While Jupiter aims at spiritual comprehension Mercury connects with analytical reason, as its sign Gemini is shouldering the second Quarter, the mind.

Hence the kind of understanding that happens in the dark, below the horizon in Gemini, might be seen as an obedience of Mercury towards the mind; but as "to obey" literally means "to listen" means that the Mercury of the Soul is simply listening to the mind. Yet, as long as this happens unnoticed in the dark it is very likely that the Soul obeys the mind and thus literally gets confused with it. The soul identifies itself to be the mind without noticing that thereby it is also giving over its will to the mind. Being stuck in the mind the soul loses its ability to comprehend cosmic unity.

Jupiter in Sagittarius, however, remains to be the son of Mother Earth; which means he cannot leave the realm of Mother Earth. In one tale of the Olympian Gods Jupiter was begging his brother Pluto to release Persephone, whom he raped and hold as wife down in Hades, for otherwise, so he told his brother, "we are all undone", for Mother Earth in her rage made the earth barren. Life was about to end.

Jupiter is besides Neptune the co-ruler of Pisces. Pisces is beyond the realm of bodily existence on the other side. The left hemisphere of the zodiac represents the Soul and the Spirit, in short, the human being; the right hemisphere represents the body-mind-mechanism, the animal kingdom of Mother Earth. As the ruler of Pisces Jupiter has the might to detach itself from the realm of Mother Earth and be at the base of its cosmic or spiritual existence. Here we give up all attachments; here we surrender. Jupiter in Sagittarius aims to understand the meaning of it all while Jupiter in Pisces enlightens the true meaning of meaning, and merges into the cosmic unity of the cosmic womb. In Sagittarius Jupiter is seeking meaning; in Pisces he creates meaning. Meaning is very important to Sagittarians as well as Pisceans.

“What does it mean?”
Understanding the meaning of all... means to comprehend how all is connected with each other, and furthermore that everything is connected with each other, and thus meaning becomes something common, something that is possessed jointly, what we all have in common. We may have different opinions about it, but meaning -similar to a definition- is definite, common to all, true for everyone. Life is what it is, whatever we make of it. What is the meaning of life? What is the common denominator? The Soul.

When we have an opinion, usually means that we have chosen to think in a particular way, and even if we have adapted to a particular idea presented to us by others, we like to believe that it was our individual choice and not simply a mechanical imitation, for that would make us to robots. But maybe: if our personal opinions are just a product of a cultural trade with common thought pattern, we all maybe just habitually think to have chosen all our thoughts -for everybody thinks so; but have we really? Have we thought about it? Have we created our opinion?
I mean, when I say “I mean” I express the way I think; yet etymologically there is already the hint that it is something we have in common. Not that my opinion and yours are the same, but that both our opinions are made by a common trade. And if our opinions are made for us and not by us then all our ideas, thoughts and opinions are just a flow of... well, whatever it is... mental waves... values... measurements... echoes of knowledge... which we notice between the ears.
If we say “that’s mean” we commonly mean by it that it is of "low-quality, inferior, poor" or "stingy, nasty" but they are later definitions of the 13th and 16th century. What it originally meant to say is that the common poor man -the uneducated- compared with the individual rich man -the educated- is perceived to be of lower quality. Thus the common man has been degraded and with it our common ground, the common denominator, the soul, the origin of all. What commonly seems to prevail now is a dismissive attitude towards this romantic idea of cosmic unity.

If we see our understanding to be an unconscious process of obedience that happens below the horizon in Gemini means that we in our aim to leave the chains and shackles of Mother Earth behind have reached a comprehension of the body-mind-mechanism that allows us to step out of this cultural hypnotic imprisonment. Jupiter, as the co-ruler of Pisces, besides Neptune, has an intrinsic understanding of its own fantastic hypnotic ability. Fantasy and hypnosis are the cosmic abilities of Jupiter, while imagination and inspiration are abilities belonging to its physical realm. Fantasy and hypnosis can be used to enlighten and unburden our spirit and its freedom.

Understanding the meaning of Jupiter through the four-coloured lens of astrology we will come to see all other associations, like progress, prosperity and potential, growth, exploration and long journeys, faith and aspiration, etc., in a comprehensive way.

Sieghart Rohr